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Psychology


Welcome Message


Air Cdre Philemon Atume Agashua (2)

Air Cdre PA Agashua(rtd)
HOD Psychology

It gives me great pleasure to welcome you to the Department of Psychology. Psychology is one of the disciplines of human endeavour that is of great importance to the military.  This stems from the fact that soldiers are human beings who interact with the world the same way as other human beings.  More importantly and in addition to this, they face other challenges as a result of their chosen profession and their theaters of operation. Psychology has been proven to be useful in many facets of military operations.  These include determining the suitability of people to be recruited into the Military, Training in Techniques of Warfare, Morale and Propaganda, Survival Strategies, Psychological Interrogation and Psychological Operations (PSYOPS), assessing the Mental Status of Soldiers who are to be deployed to theaters of operation, and Rehabilitation of soldiers with Psychological disorders (PTSD) after the operations, to mention just a few.

The Department of Psychology is among the new Departments established in the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences by the Nigerian Defence Academy (NDA).  Approval was given by the NDA Council and the programme commenced in 2010/2011 session.  It is an Academic Department with the sole aim of pursuing excellence in Psychological Learning.  The programme provides opportunities for Cadets to study and understand psychology in all its ramifications which include, the development of critical judgment, adaptation to the various stresses of military life, foundation for leadership, manpower for some branches (intelligence, provost, legal, medical) and to stimulate research in relevant areas for the Armed Forces. The Department presently has high quality Academic manpower to deliver on its objectives.

Our History


What is known today as the Department of Psychology, Nigerian Defence Academy (NDA) started with the posting of then Wg Cdre PA Agashua in 1987 to NDA on tour of duty. Wg Cdre Agashua is a Psychologist and has a PhD in Psychology from the University of Liverpool, England. Psychology was then taught as a one-unit course in the General Studies Unit (GNS). The course was made compulsory for all 300 Level Cadets. When Wg Cdre Agashua was posted out, Mr Osa-Afiana was initially visiting from the Medical Center, Airforce Base Kaduna. In 1992 Mr Osa-Afiana was finally employed as a permanent staff to teach psychology in the GNS Unit. Over time the importance of Psychology was felt in the Academy and this led to the increase of the credit units to three (3) at the same 300 level from 1992/1993 – 1995/1996 sessions. Somehow, for some reasons, some Faculties/Departments raised observations that the GNS courses were taking most of the time they needed for their core courses. Consequently, Psychology Course Units for 300 Level Cadets was again reduced to one unit.

At this time Air Cdre Agashua (rtd) was posted back to NDA where he finally retired from the service and appointed as contract staff in the GNS Unit. Both Agashua and Osa-Afiana continued to write to ask that a Department of Psychology be established in the Nigerian Defence Academy. At times their write-up met with some understanding but before it could crystallize to establishing the department, the interested Commandant was posted out. Meanwhile psychology continued to feature prominently in the Armed Forces Selection Boards (AFSB) where the applicability of psychology to the military was laid bare. Finally, at the Nigerian Defence Academy Council meeting of 04 December, 2009, approval was finally given that psychology should exist as a department. The Department of Psychology took off in the 2010/2011 session with 13 cadets and four academic staff.

Programme Rationale/Philosophy

The rationale underlying the BSc programme at the NDA is to produce graduates who are imbued with a thorough knowledge of scientific psychology, and to effectively apply same in their day-to-day lives as well as throughout their military careers, regardless of their military occupation. The programme focuses on the application of psychology in particular and behavioural science in general, to the military workplace and military operations; provides an excellent grounding for professional development and represents an exceptional way to develop the leadership abilities of graduates

Programme Objectives

The main objective of the programme is to provide opportunities for students to study and understand psychology in all its ramifications, formulate hypotheses and theories for solving psychological, socioeconomic, cultural, political and technological problems, of the Nigerian society and the international community. The programme therefore aims at the following:

1. Produce graduates with a thorough knowledge, understanding, predicting and controlling the roots of human and animal behaviour.
2. Develop critical judgment, including the ability to observe, understand, analyse and synthesize data on behaviour.
3.Facilitate adaptation to the various stresses of academic, military, and socioeconomic life including the rapid adoption of military values.
4.Influence the development of appropriate skills for leadership, interpersonal relationships, social adjustment and communications.
5. Prepare officers and officer cadets for careers in the fields that are relevant to the Armed Forces i.e. Medical, Aviation, Ergonomics, Counseling, Industrial/Organizational Psychology etc.
6. Produce the manpower requirements for some branches of the Armed Forces such as Intelligence, Provost, Legal, Personnel administration etc.
7. Stimulate research in the areas that are relevant to the needs of the Armed Forces (i.e military psychology), particularly in the areas of selection, training, deployment, safety, man-machine relationship, combat skills, welfare and morale etc.
8. Provide avenues for research and training of military and civilian personnel wishing to undertake postgraduate studies in psychology.

The Department operates a Cadet-Centred Policy (CCP) meaning we put the needs and interests of our Cadets at the core of our decision-making and functions.

Learning Support for Cadets

To facilitate effective learning experience, our undergraduate programme and courses are designed bearing in mind the needs and expectations of our cadets. Our undergraduate programme is crafted in such a manner that courses and learning activities reinforce each other. This is not only to achieve the objectives of each course, but also to actualise the general and specific learning outcomes and key competencies of the BSc Programme.

Directed Learning – Classroom Teaching

Cadets are entitled to directed teaching which takes place in Lecture Halls (LH), and Faculty or Departmental Venue. These venues are carefully designed with regards to cadets’ number, sitting capacity and requirements for teaching aid. Each venue is well ventilated and fitted with overhead projectors (OHPs), comfortable seats and, in the case of large venues, public address systems. Academic staff are expected to follow a course content, and to ensure that each session contributes to meeting set targets and learning outcomes. Attendance is compulsory in all directed-learning sessions.

Seminars

Seminars are built into some courses. They involve research and presentation of independent pieces of work by a cadet or groups of cadets. The aims of seminars are to encourage individual/group work with little supervision; presentation and defence of cadet’s own work and ideas; and capacity-building in intellectual argumentation and academic tolerance. The rules and guidance for each seminar are contained in manuals of individual courses, and/or to be obtained from individual course lecturers.

Time Management

Each Semester, a Department Timetable is designed and implemented in liaison with Academic Staff and Faculty Timetable Office. The departmental timetable is considered and approved by the Department Board or HOD. At the start of each semester, the Department Timetable Committee produces a timetable that is carefully calibrated to ensure strict adherence by both cadets and Staff. Staff have specific time allocations lectures, student consultation and research. Staff time is managed through Departmental Timetables and staff schedules. The Department encourages prudent and transparent management of time, and any default will be investigated and disciplined.

Attendance and Participation

Absence from Classes and other Academic Activities, without authorisation, is strictly forbidden. The Department takes record of absence and attendance. At the Start of each classroom session or other learning activities (such as seminars), class attendance is taken, and cases of absenteeism are closely monitored. In addition to physical attendance, cadets are encouraged to participate actively in all academic activities. Department is devising a means of monitoring and rewarding active participants in classroom sessions and discussions.

Interactive Learning

The Department encourages interactive exchange of ideas and perspectives between lecturers and cadets. The Department believes that learning is a two-way process involving the teacher and Cadets, and that a relaxed atmosphere devoid of intellectual hierarchy engenders effective learning experience.

Technology-driven learning experience

The Academy is fitted with wireless internet connection. For a smooth learning experience, all lecture Halls and Department Venues are fitted with Smart PowerPoint Projectors and other learning media. The Academy is currently upgrading its facilities and building the capacity of staff in the technologies of teaching, learning and management. The Department encourages staff to familiarise themselves and cadets with such technologies, and to ensure the safety and workability of classroom fittings. Cases of faulty machines should be reported immediately to the HOD or relevant units in NDA.

Research Supervision

At 400 Level, each cadet is allocated a suitable supervisor with expertise knowledge of the theme on which a cadet is carrying out research for the Final Year Project (PSY 499). The Supervisor will ensure that the cadet receives adequate guidance with regards to research planning, methods and tools of data collection, data presentation and analysis.

Departmental Library and IT Centre

The Department’s Library and Information Technology Centre is located next to the Office of the HOD. The Centre is being enriched with additional collections procured through the Department’s votes, and voluntary donations from Alumni, Academic Staff and private individuals and organisations. The Centre is stocked with key readings, textbooks and other relevant documents. Cadets are entitled to make use of those resources for their reading and assignments.

 Academy Library

The Academy Library is well-stocked with resources that are relevant to Political Science and Defence Studies. The Academy is acquiring more volumes to improve the library’s holding. The Library is managed by trained subject and general librarians. Cadets are encouraged to patronise the Academy Library in all their individual and group assignments and seminar preparations.

Cadets’ Staff Academic Adviser (CSAA)

The Department operates an open-door support policy for cadets. This means that each cadet is free to arrange an appointment with any member of academic staff to seek advice on academic matters. Our staff are trained to maintain strict confidentiality and trust with cadets with regards to enhancing learning strategies, and overcoming learning difficulties. Crucially, each cadet in the Department is entitled to a Staff Academic Adviser (CSAA). The Department believes that even though cadets are technically classified as adults and matured persons, a great number of them are teenagers and young people who need assistance and counselling in order to come to terms with academic challenges and progress in their careers. Therefore, the Department expects the Academic Staff Advisers to combine the functions of the parents, teachers, mentors and counsellors whilst cadets are under the care of the Department and the Academy. They are to be guided and directed properly in the handling of their failed courses and choice of course and as a matter of policy, no cadet is allowed to process any course form without the knowledge of, and input from Advisers. Cadets are also advised in the area of curricular and extra-curricular activities, critical thinking, academic discipline, time management, and career guidance. Close liaison with an SAA is crucial to a successful four year degree experience.

Grievances and Disciplinary Procedure

Cadets’ grievances are first handled by their respective Staff Academic Advisers (CSAA) and, where such matters need further attention, they are handled at the level of Departmental Board. However, where grievance border on misconduct or indiscipline, the Department Board or HOD may set up a committee to look into the matter. The committee shall have specific terms of references (TOR), mode of operation and deadline for submission its report. The recommendations of committee will be carefully considered and implemented by the Office of HOD. Cadets are also encouraged to discuss their problems with any of the Academic Staff or the Head of Department for prompt action.

Examination & Assessment

The department operates continuous assessment policy – meaning cadets are assessed regularly to ascertain level and quality of performance. Specific grade ratios are allocated to different examinable activity, and this ratio differs from one course to another. Cadets’ performance in each course evaluated using clearly stated modes of assessment. Typically, each course is assessed through a combination of some or all of the following:

In-Class Tests

Tests may be announced, but some lecturers give unannounced tests. A test is conducted to evaluate student’s performance in grounds covered in each courses, and attract marks. Test may take different forms: quizzes, multiple-choice objective questions or essay-type.

Individual Assignments

Each cadet is often given set of assignments on specific topics or themes. Individual assignments are also given in the form of book review, and review of journal articles and/or policy documents. It is the responsibility of cadets to ensure the timely completion and submission of individual work. Late submission attracts a penalty. Cadets who refuse to participate in set group work will be subjected to denial of grades and, in case of repeated offences, disciplinary action might follow.

Group Assignments

Groups work and activities are built into many of our courses to encourage teamwork. Cadets are often grouped randomly to avoid “comfort grouping” and encourage peer participation. The Department expects cadets to participate actively in their group assignments. Late submission attracts a penalty; cadets who refuse to participate in set group work will be subjected to denial of grades and, in case of repeated offence, disciplinary action.

Graded Seminars

Seminars may be graded. Usually, the Lecturer returns the graded presentation or assignment scripts accompanied by a feedback to the cadet(s). The feedback will highlight queries, annotated remarks, and offer suggestions for future improvement in a similar task.

End of Semester Examinations

Typically, end of semester examination marks a high point of the semester. Examinations carry higher marks – not less than 60%– of the total grade. The Department Examination Officer/Committee coordinates a smooth conduct of examinations. The Department will produce and distribute an Examination Timetable, well in advance of the period, in liaison with the Faculty Examination Office. Academic staff are required as a matter of policy to submit their questions to the Head of department at least a week before the commencement of each semester examination. The questions are accompanied by an explicit marking scheme.

Degree Programme


The rationale underlying the BSc programme at the NDA is to produce graduates who are imbued with a thorough knowledge of scientific psychology, and to effectively apply same in their day-to-day lives as well as throughout their military careers, regardless of their military occupation. The programme focuses on the application of psychology in particular and behavioural science in general, to the military workplace and military operations to provides an excellent grounding for professional development and represents an exceptional way to develop the leadership abilities of graduates

Programme Objectives

The main objective of the programme is to provide opportunities for students to study and understand psychology in all its ramifications, formulate hypotheses and theories for solving psychological, socioeconomic, cultural, political and technological problems, of the Nigerian society and the international community. The programme therefore aims at the following:
1.Produce graduates with a thorough knowledge, understanding, predicting and controlling the roots of human and animal behaviour.
2.Develop critical judgment, including the ability to observe, understand, analyse and synthesize data on behaviour.
3.Facilitate adaptation to the various stresses of academic, military, and socioeconomic life including the rapid adoption of military values.
4.Influence the development of appropriate skills for leadership, interpersonal relationships, social adjustment and communications.
5.Prepare Officers and Officer Cadets for careers in the fields that are relevant to the Armed Forces i.e. Medical, Aviation, Ergonomics, Counseling, Industrial/Organizational Psychology etc.
6.Produce the manpower requirements for some branches of the Armed Forces such as Intelligence, Provost, Legal, Personnel administration etc.
7.Stimulate research in the areas that are relevant to the needs of the Armed Forces (i.e military psychology), particularly in the areas of selection, training, deployment, safety, man-machine relationship, combat skills, welfare and morale etc.
8.Provide avenues for research and training of military and civilian personnel wishing to undertake postgraduate studies in psychology.

Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) Psychology

This is a four year programme fully accredited by the National Universities Commission (NUC). The programme conforms with NUC Benchmark and Minimum Academic Standards (BMAS) for Psychology.
Admission Requirements
The NDA follow the NUC guidelines in admission. The Candidates write JAMB and those who have selected NDA and met our cut off are invited for further screening. The minimum requirements are five credits with Mathematics, and English language compulsory:
Admission is through the NDA Entrance Examination and the Armed Forces Selection Board (AFSB) interview. Success in the entrance examination, the interview and medical fitness examination are essential.
1. A minimum of five (5) credit passes in not more than two sittings, at the SSCE or its equivalent which must include English Language, Mathematics and Biology are pre-requisites for admission into the 4-year degree programme.
2. All candidates should be 17 years old and not more than 21 years old at the time of entry into the Academy.
3. All candidates must be single male and female without legal obligation to support a child or other individuals.
4. Candidates must not be less than 1.68 meters tall.

Postgraduate Programmes


The NDA Council recently approved the mounting of Postgraduate programmes at Masters and Postgraduate Diploma in the following Courses:
i. MSc Clinical Psychology
ii. MSc Military Psychology
iii. Professional Master in Criminology and Forensic Psychology
iv. PGD Counseling and Psychotherapy
The above programmes had already commenced with intake of candidates in 2018/2019 Academic Session. Also approved by NDA Council and ready for commencement in 2019/2020 Academic Session are:
v. Professional Master in Managerial Psychology
vi. Postgraduate Diploma in Psychology
These programmes are carefully selected and are both viable and beneficial to the Armed Forces, individuals and society at large.

Academic Staff

S/N Name Rank Qualification Discipline
1 Air Cdre (Dr) PA Agashua (rtd) Senior Lecturer(HOD) B.Sc Psychology (UniLag-1973) M.Phil Clinical Psychology (Edinburg-1978) Ph.D Clinical Psychology (Liverpool 1982) Clinical/Military Psychology
2 Prof KA Oguntuashe Professor (Visiting Professorial Fellow) B.Sc Psychology (UniLag-1973)Ph.D Developmental/ Social Psychology (Edinburg-1982) Developmental/Social Psychology
3 Prof OA Afolabi Professor(Sabbatical) B.Sc Psychology (UI) MSc & Ph.D Social/Personality Psychology ((UI) Social/ Personality Psychology
4 Dr BA Yakasai Assoc. Prof (Visiting) MB BS (ABU; Zaria -1979) FMCP (Neuro- psychiatry-1996)M.Sc Intl Addiction Studies (London-2012) Neuropsychiatry
5 Dr G Ukasoanya Associate Professor(Visiting Research Fellow) B.Ed G & C (Uni Cal-1989)M.Ed G & C (Uni Jos-1996)Ph.D Rehab. Counselor Edu. (Michigan State Uni – 2006) Rehabilitation Psychology
6 Dr GR Awopetu Senior Lecturer(Visiting) B.Sc Psychology (Ado Ekiti-2000)MSc Clinical Psy (UI-2004) PhD Clinical Psy (BSU-2014) Clinical Psychology
7 Dr AO Okorie Senior Lecturer B.Ed G & C (UNN-1991)M.Ed Educational Psy (ABU Zaria-2002)PhD Educational Psy (ABU Zaria-2017) Educational Psychology
8 Brig; Gen (Dr) Fakokunde Senior Lecturer B.Ed G & C (UI-1991)M.Ed G & C (LASU-2000)PhD G & C (Uni Ilorin-2014) Counseling Psychology
9 Flt Lt (Dr) JA Jimoh Lecturer B.Ed G & C (UI-2002)M.Ed G & C (Uni Port-2007)PhD G & C (Uni Lag-2016) Counseling Psychology
10 Mrs HM Aigboje Lecturer I B.Sc Psychology (Uni Jos-2006) M.Sc Clinical Psy (UI-2012) Clinical Psychology
11 Mr DO Atafo Lecturer II B.Sc Psychology (Uni Jos-1992)M.Sc Org. Psychology; (Uni Jos-2007) Industrial/Organisational Psychology
12 Dr. GO Legbeti Lecturer II B.Sc Psychology (Uni Jos-2006) M.Sc Ind/ Orgnal Psy (UI-2011)PhD Ind/ Orgnal Psy (UI-2018) Industrial/Organisational Psychology
13 Mr JI Ugese Lecturer II B.Sc Psychology (BSU-2005) MSc Clinical Psy (BSU-2012) Clinical Psychology
14 Mr DM Shekwolo Assistant Lecturer B.Sc Psychology (NSUK-2008) MSc Forensic& Correctional Psy (NSUK-2014) Forensic & Correctional Psychology
15 Mr FIG Ruwan Assistant Lecturer B.Sc Psychology (NSUK-2009) MSc Forensic& Correctional Psy (NSUK-2017) Forensic & Correctional Psychology

Key Officials

S/N Office Name
1 HOD Air Cdre PA Agashua (rtd)
2 Board Member Prof KA Oguntuashe
3 Chairman; Deptal Research Development & Training Committee Prof. OA Afolabi
4 Board Member Dr BA Yakasai
5 Curriculum Officer/Seminar & Quality Assurance Committee DO Atafo
6 Welfare Officer/ Time Table Officer Dr. AO Okorie
7 Departmental PG Coordinator/ Cadets Project Coordinator Dr. G Legbeti
8 Board Member Flt Off JA Jimoh
9 Exam Officer/ Secretary; Departmental Board FIG Ruwan
10 Psychology Laboratory/ Clinic/ Library Officer DM Shekwolo
11 Departmental Secretary Mal MM Sani

Past Heads of Department

S/N Name From To
1 Air Cdre (Dr) PA Agashua (rtd) January; 2010 October 2012
2 Dr. DD Osa- Afiana November; 2012 January; 2015
3 Air Cdre (Dr) PA Agashua (rtd) November; 2015 To date

Department of Psychology
Faculty of Arts & Social Sciences
Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna- Nigeria.
Email Addresses: psychology@nda.edu.ng
paagashua@nda.edu.ng